The NRL-BED provides bacteriological examination such as culture isolation, identification of bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial testing and detection via serological as well as laboratory referral services such as, but not limited to, confirmatory testing, research, and training. It also provides external proficiency test analytes to the National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Bacteriology, Parasitology and Mycobacteriology.

One of the functions of the NRL-BED is to provide laboratory diagnostic services for the Epidemiology Bureau (EB), Regional Epidemiology Surveillance Unit (RESU) and other Local Government Units (LGU) during food and waterborne disease outbreak investigations.